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All about stepper motors

Views: 9     Author: Site Editor     Publish Time: 2023-05-10      Origin: Site


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Stepper motors are DC motors that move in discrete steps. They have multiple coils that are organized in groups called "phases". By energizing each phase in sequence, the motor will rotate, one step at a time.

With a computer controlled stepping you can achieve very precise positioning and/or speed control. For this reason, stepper motors are the motor of choice for many precision motion control applications.

Stepper motors come in many different sizes and styles and electrical characteristics. This guide details what you need to know to pick the right motor for the job.

Brief Descr Oiption Of Stepper Motors

●Small step angle and high precision;
●The number of pole pairs is equal to the number of rotor teeth, which can be changed in a wide range according to needs;
●The winding inductance changes little with the rotor position, which is easy to realize the best operation control;
●Axial magnetizing magnetic circuit, using a new type of permanent magnet material with high magnetic energy product, which is conducive to the improvement of motor performance;
The rotor magnet provides excitation; there is no obvious oscillation in the entire operating area.

Stepper Motor

Stepper Motors Brief Introduction of Technical Characteristics

●The stepping motor is used in low-speed occasions---the speed does not exceed 1000 revolutions per minute (6666PPS at 0.9 degrees), preferably between 1000-3000PPS (0.9 degrees), and it can be used here by a decelerating device. When the motor has high working efficiency and low noise;
●The stepping motor is best not to use the full-step state, the vibration is large in the full-step state;
●The voltage value in the motor specification is not the driving voltage volt value. The specific driving voltage can be selected according to the stepper driver (recommendations: 42 and below motors use 12-24V, 57 motors use DC 24V-48V, 86 use DC 48-80V, 110 The motor adopts higher than DC 80V)
●For loads with a large moment of inertia, a large frame size motor should be selected;
●When the motor is under a relatively high-speed or large inertia load, it is generally not started at the working speed but uses a gradual frequency increase to increase the speed. First, the motor does not lose a step, and second, it can reduce the noise and improve the positioning accuracy of the stop;
●For high precision, it should be solved by mechanical deceleration, increasing the motor speed, or using a driver with a high subdivision number;
●The motor should not work in the vibration zone. If necessary, it can be solved by changing the voltage, current or adding some damping.

●The motor works below 600PPS (0.9 degrees) and should be driven by a small current, large inductance, and low voltage.

Advantage of stepper motors

One of the primary benefits of stepper motors is their ability to provide precise and accurate movements. This makes them an excellent choice for medical applications such as surgical robots, infusion pumps, and CT scanners, where even small deviations from the intended path or position can have serious consequences. Stepper motors can also be programmed to provide smooth, controlled movement, which is essential in surgical procedures and medical imaging. The percentage step error does not accumulate as the motor rotates.
1. It is able to run at wide range of speeds, including very slow speeds without reduction gearing.
2. Stepper motor provide excellent response during start, stop and reverse mode.
3. It is highly reliable since no brushes or commutator are used. Its life time depend on life of the bearing.
4. Stepper motor control circuit is simple and low cost. It is mainly used for low power applications.The number of phases of the stepper motor: refers to the number of coil groups inside the motor. Currently, two-phase and three-phase are commonly used.
1. Step angle: corresponding to a pulse signal, the angular displacement of the motor rotor.
Electrical parameters: current, resistance, inductance.
Holding torque: refers to the moment when the stepper motor is energized but not rotating, the stator locks the rotor.
2. Positioning torque: The locking torque of the motor rotor itself when the motor is not powered.
3. Running torque-frequency characteristics: The curve of the relationship between the output torque and frequency during the operation of the motor measured under certain test conditions.

Classification of stepper motors

The best stepper motor will be capable of delivering your required torque while also being fast enough.I tell you my best picks depending on the category of the stepper motor:


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