Stepper Motors

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Brief Descr Oiption Of Stepper Motor

●Small step angle and high precision;
●The number of pole pairs is equal to the number of rotor teeth, which can be changed in a wide range according to needs;
●The winding inductance changes little with the rotor position, which is easy to realize the best operation control;
●Axial magnetizing magnetic circuit, using a new type of permanent magnet material with high magnetic energy product, which is conducive to the improvement of motor performance;
The rotor magnet provides excitation; there is no obvious oscillation in the entire operating area.

Introduction Of Stepper Motor

A stepper motor is an actuator that converts digital pulse signals into angular displacements. That is to say, when the stepper driver receives a pulse signal, it drives the stepper motor to rotate a fixed angle (ie step angle, step angle) in the set direction. You can control the angular displacement by controlling the number of pulses, so as to achieve the purpose of accurate positioning; at the same time, you can control the speed and acceleration of the motor rotation by controlling the pulse frequency, so as to achieve the purpose of speed regulation.
Every step of the stepper motor is very precise, and it is repeatable, so the position of the motor can be precisely controlled without any feedback. For example optical encoders. only by tracking Input step pulse. It is one of the most versatile forms of positioning systems. they are usually numbers Controlling as part of an open-loop system is simpler and more robust than a closed-loop servo system.Industrial applications include high-speed pick-and-place equipment and multi-axis CNC machines, often directly Drive screw or ball screw. Stepper motors can be used in different fields, in the field of optics, they are often used for precise positioning equipment such as linear actuators, linear stages, rotary stages, goniometers, and mirror mounts. Other uses are in packaging machinery, and in the positioning of valve pilot stages in fluid control systems. business, stepping motors are used in floppy disk drives, flatbed scanners, computer printers, plotters, image scanners, optical drives, and more.

The structure of the stepper motor

Stepper machine structure: consists of rotor (rotor core, permanent magnet, rotating shaft, ball bearing),

Stator (winding, stator core), front and rear end covers, etc.

The stator of the most typical two-phase stepper motor has 8 large teeth, 40 small teeth, and the rotor has 50 small teeth;

The stator of a three-phase motor has 9 large teeth, 45 small teeth, and the rotor has 50 small teeth.

Parameters of the stepper motor

The number of phases of the stepper motor: refers to the number of coil groups inside the motor. Currently, two-phase and three-phase are commonly used.
1. Step angle: corresponding to a pulse signal, the angular displacement of the motor rotor.
Electrical parameters: current, resistance, inductance.
Holding torque: refers to the moment when the stepper motor is energized but not rotating, the stator locks the rotor.
2. Positioning torque: The locking torque of the motor rotor itself when the motor is not powered.
3. Running torque-frequency characteristics: The curve of the relationship between the output torque and frequency during the operation of the motor measured under certain test conditions.

Characteristics of Stepper Motors

The torque of the stepper motor will decrease with the increase of the speed, as shown below:

Advantages of stepper motors

Stepper motors are electric motors that convert electrical pulses into precise mechanical movements, making them an ideal solution for many medical applications. Medical devices and equipment often require high-precision positioning, low noise, and high torque capabilities, all of which can be achieved with stepper motors.
One of the primary benefits of stepper motors is their ability to provide precise and accurate movements. This makes them an excellent choice for medical applications such as surgical robots, infusion pumps, and CT scanners, where even small deviations from the intended path or position can have serious consequences. Stepper motors can also be programmed to provide smooth, controlled movement, which is essential in surgical procedures and medical imaging. The percentage step error does not accumulate as the motor rotates.
1. It is able to run at wide range of speeds, including very slow speeds without reduction gearing.
2. Stepper motor provide excellent response during start, stop and reverse mode.
3. It is highly reliable since no brushes or commutator are used. Its life time depend on life of the bearing.
4. Stepper motor control circuit is simple and low cost. It is mainly used for low power applications.The number of phases of the stepper motor: refers to the number of coil groups inside the motor. Currently, two-phase and three-phase are commonly used.
1. Step angle: corresponding to a pulse signal, the angular displacement of the motor rotor.
Electrical parameters: current, resistance, inductance.
Holding torque: refers to the moment when the stepper motor is energized but not rotating, the stator locks the rotor.
2. Positioning torque: The locking torque of the motor rotor itself when the motor is not powered.
3. Running torque-frequency characteristics: The curve of the relationship between the output torque and frequency during the operation of the motor measured under certain test conditions.

Summarize of stepper motors

Stepper motors are also known for their reliability and durability, which is essential in medical equipment that requires constant and accurate operation. They have no brushes, and their parts are highly resistant to wear and tear, meaning that they can operate for extended periods without requiring maintenance. This reliability is critical in situations where a malfunction could have serious consequences for the patient's health.

In summary, stepper motors are highly advantageous for medical applications due to their precise and accurate movements, low noise, high torque capabilities, reliability, and durability. They are a critical component in many medical devices and equipment, and their versatility and flexibility make them well-suited for a wide range of medical applications.

Stepper Motor Brief Introduction of Technical Characteristics

General Technical Characteristics

●The stepping motor is used in low-speed occasions---the speed does not exceed 1000 revolutions per minute (6666PPS at 0.9 degrees), preferably between 1000-3000PPS (0.9 degrees), and it can be used here by a decelerating device. When the motor has high working efficiency and low noise;
●The stepping motor is best not to use the full-step state, the vibration is large in the full-step state;
●The voltage value in the motor specification is not the driving voltage volt value. The specific driving voltage can be selected according to the stepper driver (recommendations: 42 and below motors use 12-24V, 57 motors use DC 24V-48V, 86 use DC 48-80V, 110 The motor adopts higher than DC 80V)
●For loads with a large moment of inertia, a large frame size motor should be selected;
●When the motor is under a relatively high-speed or large inertia load, it is generally not started at the working speed but uses a gradual frequency increase to increase the speed. First, the motor does not lose a step, and second, it can reduce the noise and improve the positioning accuracy of the stop;
●For high precision, it should be solved by mechanical deceleration, increasing the motor speed, or using a driver with a high subdivision number;
●The motor should not work in the vibration zone. If necessary, it can be solved by changing the voltage, current or adding some damping;
●The motor works below 600PPS (0.9 degrees) and should be driven by a small current, large inductance, and low voltage.

Mechanical Technical Characteristics

●When installing/removing the shaft end of a stepping motor with a coupling part, do not directly hit the shaft end with a hammer. (The hammer hits the shaft end directly, and the encoder at the other end of the stepper motor shaft may be damaged);
●Try to align the shaft ends to the best condition to ensure good concentricity, otherwise vibration may occur, the bearing may be damaged, and the shaft may even be broken;
●The motor can be used in places that will be attacked by water or oil drops, but it is not completely waterproof or oil-proof. The default protection level is IP54. Therefore, the motor should not be placed or used in an environment that is corroded by water or oil (if necessary For special protection level, please contact us!);
●If the motor is connected to a reduction gear, an oil seal should be added when using a stepper motor to prevent the reduction gear from entering the stepper motor;
●Do not immerse the motor cable in oil or water. Make sure that the cable is not subjected to moment or vertical load due to external bending force or its own weight, especially at the cable outlet or connection.
●When the motor is moving, the cable (that is, the one configured with the motor) should be firmly fixed to a stationary part (relative to the motor) and an additional cable loaded in the cable support should be used to delay it, so that the bending stress Can be reduced to the minimum. The radius of the cable elbow should be as large as possible.

Naming Rules

42 HB 40 F 105 B 06
42 Motor base:42*42mm
HB Hybrid stepping motor
40 Length of motor body
F Number of leads, F: Four wires, S: Six wires, E: 8 wires
105 Motor rated current value,1.5A
B Motor shaft,B:Falt shaft CL:Gear D:Double Falts shaft PJ:Keyway shaft
6 Derived number

Main application occasions of stepper motor

First, the stepping motor is mainly used in some occasions with positioning requirements, such as: wire cutting table dragging, tufting machine table (pore positioning), packaging machine (fixed length), basically all occasions involving positioning Use it.

   Second, it is widely used in 3D printers, monitoring equipment, smart locks, blood analyzers, smart microscopes, vision testers and other fields, especially suitable for applications requiring stable operation, low noise, fast response, long service life, and high output torque.

Third, stepping motors are widely used in textile machinery and equipment such as computerized embroidery machines. The characteristics of this type of stepping motors are that the torque is not high, the frequent start-up response speed is fast, the running noise is low, the operation is stable, and the control performance is good. , The cost of the whole machine is low.

   Stepper motor application precautions:
   1. The stepping motor is used in low-speed occasions---the speed does not exceed 1000 revolutions per minute (6666PPS at 0.9 degrees), preferably between 1000-3000PPS (0.9 degrees), and it can be used here by a decelerating device. At this time, the motor has high working efficiency and low noise.
    2. The stepping motor is best not to use the full-step state, the vibration is large in the full-step state.

    3. For loads with large moment of inertia, a large frame size motor should be selected.
 4. When the motor is at a higher speed or a large inertia load, it is gene.

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●When installing/removing the shaft end of a stepping motor with a coupling part, do not directly hit the shaft end with a hammer. (The hammer hits the shaft end directly, and the encoder at the other end of the stepper motor shaft may be damaged);
●Try to align the shaft ends to the best condition to ensure good concentricity, otherwise vibration may occur, the bearing may be damaged, and the shaft may even be broken;
●The motor can be used in places that will be attacked by water or oil drops, but it is not completely waterproof or oil-proof. The default protection level is IP54. Therefore, the motor should not be placed or used in an environment that is corroded by water or oil (if necessary For special protection level, please contact us!);
●If the motor is connected to a reduction gear, an oil seal should be added when using a stepper motor to prevent the reduction gear from entering the stepper motor;
●Do not immerse the motor cable in oil or water. Make sure that the cable is not subjected to moment or vertical load due to external bending force or its own weight, especially at the cable outlet or connection.
●When the motor is moving, the cable (that is, the one configured with the motor) should be firmly fixed to a stationary part (relative to the motor) and an additional cable loaded in the cable support should be used to delay it, so that the bending stress Can be reduced to the minimum. The radius of the cable elbow should be as large as possible.

 

Stepper Motor FAQ

  • Q How do I troubleshoot common issues with stepper motors?

    A Check for loose connections, verify power supply compatibility, ensure proper wiring and polarity, and inspect for mechanical obstructions. If problems persist, review the controller settings, and consider testing with a different driver or controller to isolate the issue.
  • Q What are common applications of stepper motors?

    A Stepper motors find applications in various fields, including robotics, 3D printing, CNC machines, medical devices, and automation systems. Their ability to provide precise control makes them suitable for tasks requiring accurate positioning.
  • Q How can I control a stepper motor?

    A Stepper motors can be controlled using dedicated stepper motor controllers, microcontrollers, or specialized stepper motor driver ICs. Popular control methods include full-step, half-step, and microstepping, each influencing motor performance and resolution.
  • Q What is the difference between bipolar and unipolar stepper motors?

    A The main difference lies in the winding configuration. Bipolar motors have two coils per phase, and current flows in both directions, while unipolar motors have a center-tapped winding, and current flows in one direction. Bipolar motors generally offer higher torque.
  • Q Can I run a stepper motor without a dedicated driver?

    A While it is possible to run a stepper motor directly from a microcontroller, using a dedicated stepper motor driver is recommended for better performance and protection against overcurrent and overheating. Stepper motor drivers provide the necessary current control and waveform shaping for optimal motor operation.
  • Q What is the difference between bipolar and unipolar stepper motors?

    A The main difference lies in the winding configuration. Bipolar motors have two coils per phase, while unipolar motors have a center-tapped winding. Bipolar motors generally provide higher torque, but unipolar motors are easier to control.
  • Q How do I troubleshoot common issues with stepper motors?

    A Check for loose connections, verify power supply compatibility, inspect wiring for correct polarity, and ensure there are no mechanical obstructions. Reviewing controller settings and testing with an alternate controller or driver can help identify and resolve issues.
  • Q Do stepper motors require feedback for position control?

    A While stepper motors can operate in an open-loop system without feedback, closed-loop systems with feedback devices like encoders or sensors are used in applications where precise position control and error correction are essential.
  • Q What is microstepping, and how does it improve stepper motor performance?

    A   Microstepping is a technique that divides each full step of a stepper motor into smaller sub-steps. This allows for smoother motion, reduced vibration, and improved positioning accuracy, especially at low speeds.     
  • Q What is the significance of step angle in stepper motors?

    A  Step angle is the angle through which the motor rotates for each input pulse. It is a critical parameter that determines the motor's resolution and accuracy. Smaller step angles result in finer control but may require more complex drive electronics. 
  • Q What are the key components of a stepper motor system?

    A A stepper motor system consists of the stepper motor itself, a driver to control the motor, and a controller or microcontroller that generates the sequence of pulses to drive the motor.             
  • Q What is a stepper motor, and how does it differ from other types of motors?

    A    A stepper motor is an electromechanical device that converts electrical pulses into precise mechanical movements. Unlike other motors, it moves in discrete steps, allowing for accurate control of position and speed.   
  • Q Can stepper motors operate in an open-loop configuration?

    A   Yes, stepper motors can operate in an open-loop system, where position control is achieved without external feedback devices. However, for critical applications, closed-loop systems with feedback may be preferred to enhance accuracy and correct errors.  
  • Q What is microstepping, and why is it important?

    A   Microstepping is a technique that divides each full step of a stepper motor into smaller increments. This provides smoother motion, reduces vibration, and improves accuracy. Microstepping is essential for applications demanding precision.  
  • Q How is the step resolution of a stepper motor determined?

    A
    Step resolution is the smallest angle the motor can move in response to a single input pulse. It is determined by the motor's construction, the number of poles, and the drive electronics. Higher pole counts and microstepping can enhance resolution.

    To calculate the step resolution, you can use the following formula:

    stepper motor
  • Q What are the advantages of using stepper motors?

    A   Stepper motors offer precise control of movement, high torque at low speeds, simplicity of control, and open-loop operation (no feedback required). They are ideal for applications requiring accurate position control.  
  • Q What is a stepper motor, and how does it work?

    A
    Here's a breakdown of how a stepper motor works:
     
    Construction:
     
    A typical stepper motor comprises a rotor and a stator.  The rotor is the rotating part, while the stator is the stationary part.  The rotor is usually equipped with teeth or a magnetic structure that interacts with the magnetic fields generated by the stator.
    Stator and Windings:
     
    The stator contains coils of wire wound around poles.  These coils are energized sequentially to create a rotating magnetic field.  The number of poles and windings in the motor determines its step angle, which is the angle through which the motor rotates for each input pulse.
    Magnetic Interaction:
     
    When an electric current is applied to a coil in the stator, it generates a magnetic field.  The rotor, which is typically made of a permanent magnet or ferromagnetic material, aligns itself with the magnetic field created by the energized stator coil.  This causes the rotor to move to a specific position.
    Step Rotation:
     
    Stepper motors move in discrete steps, and the angle of rotation for each step is determined by the motor's design.  The sequence of energizing the stator coils dictates the direction and distance of each step.  By controlling the sequence of these pulses, precise control over the motor's position and speed is achieved.
    Control Signals:
     
    To operate a stepper motor, a controller or microcontroller sends a series of electrical pulses to the motor's stator windings.  The order and timing of these pulses determine the direction and speed of the motor.  This control method allows for accurate positioning without the need for external sensors.
    Full-Step and Microstepping:
     
    Stepper motors can operate in full-step mode, where each pulse corresponds to a single step.  Alternatively, microstepping subdivides each step into smaller increments, providing smoother motion and finer resolution.  Microstepping is achieved by controlling the current in the motor's coils more precisely.
  • Q What is the main reason to use a stepper motor?

    A Essentially, stepper motors provide excellent speed control, precise positioning, and repeatability of motion. Also, stepper motors are very reliable because there are no contact brushes in the motor. This minimizes mechanical failure and maximizes the life of the motor. Moreover, stepper motors are more affordable than other motors and have a wide range of applications.
  • Q Why are stepper motors important?

    A Stepper motors can produce full, instantaneous torque - even from a standstill. This makes them very useful for motion control applications, where accuracy, repeatability, and power are paramount.
  • Q What is stepper motor explanation?

    A Stepper motors are DC motors that move in discrete steps. They have multiple coils that are organized in groups called "phases". By energizing each phase in sequence, the motor will rotate, one step at a time. With a computer controlled stepping you can achieve very precise positioning and/or speed control.
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