Lead Screw Stepper Motor

External Lead Screw Linear Actuators
Non-Captive Lead Screw Linear Actuator
Ball Screw Linear Actuators
Captive Lead Screw Linear Actuator

Brief Description of Lead Screw Stepper Motor

●Hybrid linear stepping motor is a stepping motor that converts rotation into linear motion through a built-in screw
●The actuator uses a basic hybrid stepper motor design, and a step angle of 1.8 or 0.9 degrees is applied. There are three basic types of linear stepper motors—fixed shaft, through shaft or externally driven versions.
Captive Lead Screw Linear Actuator
●Fixed shaft motor uses its own spline as a guide device to achieve a maximum stroke of 63.5mm in linear motion.
Non-Captive Lead Screw Linear Actuator
●Although the synthetic motion is linear, the screw still rotates, and the anti-rotation device needs to be designed by the customer.
External Lead Screw Linear Actuators
●Nut moves linearly relative to the screw
●The anti-rotation device needs to be designed by the customer.

Classification of Lead Screw Stepper Motor

External Lead Screw Linear Actuators、Non-Captive Lead Screw Linear Actuator、Ball Screw Linear Actuators、Captive Lead Screw Linear Actuator

1.External Lead Screw Linear Actuators: 

The lead screws of the external linear stepper motors are integrated with the motor rotor as a part. It has an external drive nut that can be mounted to a carriage assembly. Linear motion is created by the nut traversing back and forth on the lead screw as it turns. The common end feature of the screw is a bearing journal. External linear stepper motors are most akin to motorized rails where the nut is replaced by a driven carriage assembly.

2.Non-Captive Lead Screw Linear Actuator: 

The nuts of the non-captive linear stepper motors are integrated with the rotor. The lead screw can go through the motor or be completely separated from the motor as a part. It has no reasonable stroke limits but the shaft must be attached to an assembly that will not rotate. This will then allow the lead screw to extend and retract without rotating, travel freely in and out of the motor body. In certain setups the motor body may serve as the drive or the nut in the assembly. The anti-rotation is by the attachments point and is commonly a cut or machine thread on the end of the screw. The non-captive is potentially the shortest overall length assembly.

3.Ball Screw Linear Actuators: 

Ball screws and lead screws are used for different applications and are often not interchangeable. Both have alternate advantages and disadvantages. If you compare a ball screw and lead screw design yourself, the first thing you might notice is that they are designed to carry loads differently. The way ball screws move a load is through recirculating ball bearings to maximize efficiency and minimize friction. A lead screw relies on the amount of friction between surfaces to be low compared to the amount of pressure being applied. That means that a lead screw does not have the same capability to be as efficient as a ball screw. They also provide linear actuators with better performance or faster speeds, depending on which design model you choose.

4.Captive Lead Screw Linear Actuator: 

In a captive linear actuator design, the lead screw is connected to a spline shaft that passes through a spline bushing to keep it from rotating. The spline bushing prevents the lead screw from rotating but allows enough clearance for the shaft to move axially as the lead screw is driven back and forth with a corresponding clockwise and counterclockwise turn of the motor. The anti-rotation feature is inherent in the design and creates a stand-alone unit that pushes and pulls whatever device to which it is attached. Because it is independent, this type of actuator can also provide a push force without being attached to anything. For this reason, it's an excellent choice for packaging applications or push-button applications where the return motion is handled by a spring pre-load or influenced by gravity.
Valves used to control the flow of liquids are excellent applications for this product because the captive actuators can easily open and close them with speed control and accuracy. Captive actuators can also be used to control airflow in HVAC systems with automated dampers in the ductwork. They work particularly well due to their quiet operation, compact size, and ability to function in dusty/dirty environments.

Features of Lead Screw Stepper Motor

Our 1.8 or 0.9 degree motor drives an integrated threaded screw through the rotor magnet and threaded nut assembly to provide linear motion in the machine. Wheeler's hybrid linear stepping motor provides a size specification of 21 to 86mm and has different resolutions, the step length is from 15 to 127um/step, and the linear force generated ranges from 1N to 2000N.


We are equipped with various precision screws with different leads and different pitches. According to the mechanical characteristics, the larger the lead, the lower the thrust, but the transmission speed is fast. The smaller the lead, the greater the thrust, but the transmission speed is slow.


Our nuts are made of special materials, which have good wear resistance, high lubrication, low friction, and high physical stability.


The closeness between the actual value and the theoretical value.
Due to manufacturing tolerances between individual parts in production, there will be slight differences in actual strokes. High-precision products make this error very small. However, the error always exists. For example, the screw lead is 1 inch (25.4mm), and the theoretical linear stroke of 360-degree rotation is 1 inch, but the actual maximum of 1 inch The error may reach +1-.0005 inches.

  Repeatability

Under certain conditions, the motor is commanded to the degree of consistency of the position range of the same target. For example: Let the linear stepping motor nut move a certain distance from the starting point, measure and record this distance, call it, and then let the actuator return to the starting point, let the linear stepping motor repeatedly walk to the command distance X, the actual value and X The difference is repeated positioning accuracy.


The motor uses specially configured high-performance grease, so that the motor no longer needs to be lubricated, and has outstanding durability. The working temperature range is -65℃~250℃, and it is not flammable.

Application of Lead Screw Stepper Motor

Lead screw stepper motors are used as a component within various linear motion control systems. They are well suited to instrument grade applications, where a smooth and precise operation is required. Some applications for lead screw stepper motors are: factory automaction、food processing、Packing&coverting、material handling.

Advantage of Lead Screw Stepper Motor

●Because the error does not accumulate, good accuracy can be maintained regardless of whether it is a short stroke or a long stroke, which means that there is no need to use expensive position feedback devices, such as encoders. The motor can run in single-step, half-step, or micro-step mode, resulting in higher accuracy, greater power, and quieter operation.
●Excellent open loop control. No need for encoder, low cost, compact design
●The same power drive motor can maintain synchronization and maintenance-free
●Avoid complicated closed-loop control with suitable positioning accuracy, configurable unipolar and bipolar coils
●Using standard hybrid stepping motor size specifications to simplify integration
●The top of the screw rod has a thread for easy connection, and an adapter can be added to provide M2-M6 thread, which is convenient to match the load.


1. Can be self-locking
2. The number of parts is relatively small and the weight is light
3. Low noise during operation
4. Less maintenance
5. Can provide precise linear motion
6. Can provide a great mechanical advantage
7. Simple to manufacture
8. Simple design
9. Compact structure
10. High carrying capacity

Holry Stepper Motor Linear Actuators

HOLRY Linear Technologies lead screw stepper motor linear actuators feature heavy-duty ball bearings to maximize their thrust. Our lead screws are securely press-fitted into the motor’s rotor to allow a smaller footprint, while minimizing backlash and providing years of dependable life. Our stepper motor linear actuators are available in captive, non-captive, external and ball screw linear actuator configurations. Optional available accessories include connectors, wire harnesses, encoders, and custom lead screw nuts.


Stepper motor linear actuators are devices that use a stepper motor to create linear motion. They are commonly used in automation, robotics, and other applications that require precise and controlled linear movement.

The stepper motor inside the actuator consists of a rotor and stator, which work together to generate rotational motion. The linear motion is achieved by converting this rotational motion into linear motion through the use of a lead screw or other mechanism.

Stepper motor linear actuators are typically used in applications where accuracy and precision are critical, such as in laboratory equipment, medical devices, and manufacturing machinery. They offer a high degree of control over movement and can be programmed to move in very precise increments.

There are different types of stepper motor linear actuators, including captive, non-captive, and external linear actuators. Captive actuators have a fixed shaft, while non-captive actuators have a rotating shaft. External actuators use a separate lead screw or other mechanism to convert the rotational motion of the motor into linear motion.

Overall, stepper motor linear actuators are a versatile and reliable option for creating precise linear motion in a variety of applications.


Lead Screw Stepper Motor FAQ

  • Q How do I troubleshoot common issues with stepper motors?

    A Check for loose connections, verify power supply compatibility, ensure proper wiring and polarity, and inspect for mechanical obstructions. If problems persist, review the controller settings, and consider testing with a different driver or controller to isolate the issue.
  • Q What are common applications of stepper motors?

    A Stepper motors find applications in various fields, including robotics, 3D printing, CNC machines, medical devices, and automation systems. Their ability to provide precise control makes them suitable for tasks requiring accurate positioning.
  • Q How can I control a stepper motor?

    A Stepper motors can be controlled using dedicated stepper motor controllers, microcontrollers, or specialized stepper motor driver ICs. Popular control methods include full-step, half-step, and microstepping, each influencing motor performance and resolution.
  • Q What is the difference between bipolar and unipolar stepper motors?

    A The main difference lies in the winding configuration. Bipolar motors have two coils per phase, and current flows in both directions, while unipolar motors have a center-tapped winding, and current flows in one direction. Bipolar motors generally offer higher torque.
  • Q Can I run a stepper motor without a dedicated driver?

    A While it is possible to run a stepper motor directly from a microcontroller, using a dedicated stepper motor driver is recommended for better performance and protection against overcurrent and overheating. Stepper motor drivers provide the necessary current control and waveform shaping for optimal motor operation.
  • Q What is the difference between bipolar and unipolar stepper motors?

    A The main difference lies in the winding configuration. Bipolar motors have two coils per phase, while unipolar motors have a center-tapped winding. Bipolar motors generally provide higher torque, but unipolar motors are easier to control.
  • Q How do I troubleshoot common issues with stepper motors?

    A Check for loose connections, verify power supply compatibility, inspect wiring for correct polarity, and ensure there are no mechanical obstructions. Reviewing controller settings and testing with an alternate controller or driver can help identify and resolve issues.
  • Q Do stepper motors require feedback for position control?

    A While stepper motors can operate in an open-loop system without feedback, closed-loop systems with feedback devices like encoders or sensors are used in applications where precise position control and error correction are essential.
  • Q What is microstepping, and how does it improve stepper motor performance?

    A     Microstepping is a technique that divides each full step of a stepper motor into smaller sub-steps. This allows for smoother motion, reduced vibration, and improved positioning accuracy, especially at low speeds.       
  • Q What is the significance of step angle in stepper motors?

    A   Step angle is the angle through which the motor rotates for each input pulse. It is a critical parameter that determines the motor's resolution and accuracy. Smaller step angles result in finer control but may require more complex drive electronics.  
  • Q What are the key components of a stepper motor system?

    A A stepper motor system consists of the stepper motor itself, a driver to control the motor, and a controller or microcontroller that generates the sequence of pulses to drive the motor.                 
  • Q What is a stepper motor, and how does it differ from other types of motors?

    A       A stepper motor is an electromechanical device that converts electrical pulses into precise mechanical movements. Unlike other motors, it moves in discrete steps, allowing for accurate control of position and speed.      
  • Q Can stepper motors operate in an open-loop configuration?

    A     Yes, stepper motors can operate in an open-loop system, where position control is achieved without external feedback devices. However, for critical applications, closed-loop systems with feedback may be preferred to enhance accuracy and correct errors.    
  • Q What is microstepping, and why is it important?

    A     Microstepping is a technique that divides each full step of a stepper motor into smaller increments. This provides smoother motion, reduces vibration, and improves accuracy. Microstepping is essential for applications demanding precision.    
  • Q How is the step resolution of a stepper motor determined?

    Step resolution is the smallest angle the motor can move in response to a single input pulse. It is determined by the motor's construction, the number of poles, and the drive electronics. Higher pole counts and microstepping can enhance resolution.

    To calculate the step resolution, you can use the following formula:

    stepper motor
  • Q What are the advantages of using stepper motors?

    A     Stepper motors offer precise control of movement, high torque at low speeds, simplicity of control, and open-loop operation (no feedback required). They are ideal for applications requiring accurate position control.    
  • Q What is a stepper motor, and how does it work?

    Here's a breakdown of how a stepper motor works:
    A typical stepper motor comprises a rotor and a stator.  The rotor is the rotating part, while the stator is the stationary part.  The rotor is usually equipped with teeth or a magnetic structure that interacts with the magnetic fields generated by the stator.
    Stator and Windings:
    The stator contains coils of wire wound around poles.  These coils are energized sequentially to create a rotating magnetic field.  The number of poles and windings in the motor determines its step angle, which is the angle through which the motor rotates for each input pulse.
    Magnetic Interaction:
    When an electric current is applied to a coil in the stator, it generates a magnetic field.  The rotor, which is typically made of a permanent magnet or ferromagnetic material, aligns itself with the magnetic field created by the energized stator coil.  This causes the rotor to move to a specific position.
    Step Rotation:
    Stepper motors move in discrete steps, and the angle of rotation for each step is determined by the motor's design.  The sequence of energizing the stator coils dictates the direction and distance of each step.  By controlling the sequence of these pulses, precise control over the motor's position and speed is achieved.
    Control Signals:
    To operate a stepper motor, a controller or microcontroller sends a series of electrical pulses to the motor's stator windings.  The order and timing of these pulses determine the direction and speed of the motor.  This control method allows for accurate positioning without the need for external sensors.
    Full-Step and Microstepping:
    Stepper motors can operate in full-step mode, where each pulse corresponds to a single step.  Alternatively, microstepping subdivides each step into smaller increments, providing smoother motion and finer resolution.  Microstepping is achieved by controlling the current in the motor's coils more precisely.
  • Q What is the main reason to use a stepper motor?

    A Essentially, stepper motors provide excellent speed control, precise positioning, and repeatability of motion. Also, stepper motors are very reliable because there are no contact brushes in the motor. This minimizes mechanical failure and maximizes the life of the motor. Moreover, stepper motors are more affordable than other motors and have a wide range of applications.
  • Q Why are stepper motors important?

    A Stepper motors can produce full, instantaneous torque - even from a standstill. This makes them very useful for motion control applications, where accuracy, repeatability, and power are paramount.
  • Q What is stepper motor explanation?

    A Stepper motors are DC motors that move in discrete steps. They have multiple coils that are organized in groups called "phases". By energizing each phase in sequence, the motor will rotate, one step at a time. With a computer controlled stepping you can achieve very precise positioning and/or speed control.

Holry Is Stepper Motor Linear Actuators Supplier

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Changzhou Holry Electric Technology Co., Ltd. specializes in the development and production of stepper motors, hybrid stepper motor, CNC machine motor, screw motor, spindle motors, air cooled spindle, brushless motors, stepper motor screwstepper motor gearbox, servo motors and drive systems.


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