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Why does the robot design use a stepper motor ?

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Stepper motors with low speed and high torque equipment make the transmission shorter which means higher reliability, higher efficiency, smaller clearance and lower cost. It is this feature that makes stepper ideal for robots, since most robot movements are short distances requiring high acceleration to reach low cycle times. Power - weight ratio is lower than DC motor. Usually involves short distance stops and starts. They are ideal robots at low RPM and high torque.

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All ST robots have encoder feedback which is counted against the software motor. If no errors can be corrected, the system will stop. As a result, the integrity of the system is much higher.


Therefore, the advantages of stepper motor in robot design are as follows:


1. For the same performance of the stepper motor is cheaper.


2. Stepper motor has longer life than brushless motor etc.


3. As a digital motor it can accurately locate no hunting or overshooting.


4. The driver module is not a linear amplifier which means less heat sink, more efficiency, and more reliability.


5. Driver modules are cheaper than linear amplifiers.


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6. There are no expensive servo-controlled electronics because the signal originates directly from the MPU.


7. Software fail-safe. Main control board problem stepping pulse. If the software does not work or crashes the motor stops.


8. Electronic drive fail-safe. If the motor that drives the amplifier fault locks, it will not operate. When the servo drive fails the motor can still run, possibly at full speed.


9. Speed control is precise and repeatable (crystal control).


10. Stepper motors run extremely slowly if needed.

A robot design may use a stepper motor for several reasons, including precise control, accuracy, and repeatability. Stepper motors offer several advantages over other types of motors, making them an ideal choice for many robotic applications.

One of the main advantages of stepper motors is their ability to provide precise control over the motor's position, speed, and acceleration. Stepper motors move in discrete steps, allowing for accurate positioning and control over the motor's movement. This makes them ideal for applications that require precise control, such as robotics, CNC machines, and 3D printers.


Additionally, stepper motors offer superior accuracy and repeatability compared to other types of motors. They can maintain a constant speed and position, even under varying loads and conditions, making them ideal for applications that require consistent and repeatable motion.


Stepper motors are also relatively easy to control, as they typically only require a simple pulse signal to move to the desired position. This makes them easy to integrate into robotic systems and other automation applications.

Advantages of stepper motors

Stepper motors are electric motors that convert electrical pulses into precise mechanical movements, making them an ideal solution for many medical applications. Medical devices and equipment often require high-precision positioning, low noise, and high torque capabilities, all of which can be achieved with stepper motors.
One of the primary benefits of stepper motors is their ability to provide precise and accurate movements. This makes them an excellent choice for medical applications such as surgical robots, infusion pumps, and CT scanners, where even small deviations from the intended path or position can have serious consequences. Stepper motors can also be programmed to provide smooth, controlled movement, which is essential in surgical procedures and medical imaging. The percentage step error does not accumulate as the motor rotates.
1. It is able to run at wide range of speeds, including very slow speeds without reduction gearing.
2. Stepper motor provide excellent response during start, stop and reverse mode.
3. It is highly reliable since no brushes or commutator are used. Its life time depend on life of the bearing.
4. Stepper motor control circuit is simple and low cost. It is mainly used for low power applications.The number of phases of the stepper motor: refers to the number of coil groups inside the motor. Currently, two-phase and three-phase are commonly used.
1. Step angle: corresponding to a pulse signal, the angular displacement of the motor rotor.
Electrical parameters: current, resistance, inductance.
Holding torque: refers to the moment when the stepper motor is energized but not rotating, the stator locks the rotor.
2. Positioning torque: The locking torque of the motor rotor itself when the motor is not powered.
3. Running torque-frequency characteristics: The curve of the relationship between the output torque and frequency during the operation of the motor measured under certain test conditions.





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