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5 Reasons Brushless Motors are Better than Brushed Motors

Views: 3     Author: Site Editor     Publish Time: 2023-05-16      Origin: Site Inquire

Fundamentally, all electric motors convert electrical energy into rotational kinetic energy by exploiting the laws of electromagnetism. But these physical rules have given rise to a variety of motor architectures, which offer very different performance characteristics. In this article, we take a look at the two most common motor designs: brushed and brushless motors.

Brushed Motors

The relatively simple brushed motor was the first type of electric motor to attain widespread use.

Brushed motors generally consist of two parts: a stator and a rotor. The stator is composed of a ring of fixed permanent magnets, and the electromagnetic winding forms the rotor inside the stator, and the end can be connected to the commutator. The steering gear is in contact with the brushes, and the electromagnetic winding in the rotor will provide a DC current to induce the magnetic field, and it will rotate naturally until it matches the magnetic field of the electron.

The polarity of the electromagnetic winding must be exchanged through the different phases of the current circulation to ensure the continuous rotation of the rotor. This process is also called commutation. In a brushed motor, current is supplied from fixed brushes to the commutator, which turns the current on and off in a specific sequence to control the rotation of the rotor in response to different magnetic fields.

Brushless Motors

Brushless motors do away with brushes; instead using electronics to commutate the motor. In brushless motors, an electronic circuit (example: Optical encoder or Hall-Effect sensors) senses the position of the rotor relative to the stator and supplies current through the three phase pairs of the stator windings, maintaining a 120° phase offset between each, to ensure smooth rotation and low torque ripple. Brushless motors are a comparatively recent motor design, made possible by the development of solid-state electronics in the 1960s.

Introduction to the stator part of the brushless motor

1. The stator is divided into a single-piece stator and a whole stator. The single-piece stator needs to be wound separately for each piece, and the whole nail can be directly wound as a whole. Put the frame in the slot of the stator, pay attention to the position of the outlet of the stock price, and ensure that the notch on the wiring side is placed in the middle of any plane of the stator.
2. The stator with wound wires needs to be paralleled according to the drawings. After the wires are connected, the wires should be tied (to protect the wires from being squeezed or damaged), and then the stator should be shrunk.
3. The stator that has been heat-fitted is connected to the wiring step, and the wiring needs to be carried out according to the requirements of the customer or the requirements on the drawing.
4. The stator that has been connected according to the requirements needs to be tested, and the stator is connected to the test machine to test whether the resistance and inductance meet the standard.
5. The tested stator is assembled and put into the transfer box for standby.

Introduction to the rotor part of the brushless motor

1. Glue the shaft and rotor of the brushless motor and wait for the spare.

2. Classify the magnetic steel (N grade, S grade), stick it on the rotor with glue, NSNSNS/SNSNSN, and stick the magnetic steel on the rotor steel sleeve.

3. Test the dynamic balance of the rotor (in order for the rotor to run smoothly), the tested rotor and stator are assembled, the wave pad is placed on the front cover, and the rear cover does not need a wave pad.

4. When installing the Hall, it needs to be installed according to the steering requirements of the customer or the drawing, installed on the rear output shaft of the motor, and finally debug the waveform.

5. After the motor is completely installed, it is necessary to test the whole machine with the driver, adjust the speed to the maximum, check whether the motor is running smoothly, noise, temperature rise, etc.

Though the electronics involved in brushless motors are simple by todays’ standards, they represent a radical departure from the mechanical commutation systems found in brushed motors. This design change gives brushless motors a surprising number of advantages.

1. Quieter Motor Operation

Friction and electrical arcing between brushes and commutator plates in brushed motors produce substantial motor noise. In brushless motors, the job of commutation is carried out by an electronic circuit, resulting in much quieter operation.

2. Less Heat Production of the Motor

As well as producing sound, friction between the brushes and commutator plates in a brushed motor produces a significant amount of heat. This can be a serious problem in many applications. In brushless motors, the only friction that occurs is in the rotor bearings. This means heat production is much less of an issue in brushless motors.

3. Higher Motor Efficiency

This is a particularly important advantage of brushless motors. The sound and heat produced by a brushed motor essentially represent power losses from the device, taking energy away from the rotor itself – which would be used to drive the load. In brushless motors, the amounts of sound and heat produced are greatly reduced, resulting in significantly higher efficiency.

4. Longer Motor Life

The brushes in brushed motors are gradually worn away with use, since they are in constant contact with the commutator – it is only a matter of time until the brushes need to be replaced. Brushless motors do not face this problem, which drastically reduces maintenance requirements, and enables a range of applications where brush replacement would be impractical, such as in outer space satcom equipment.

5. Better Power-to-Weight Ratio of a Motor

Fewer mechanical components means brushless motors have lower mass than brushed motors. The result: brushless motors offer a better power-to-weight and torque-to-weight ratio than brushed motors.

All of these advantages mean that, aside from a few legacy uses, brushless motors reign supreme for present-day applications. Contact a member of the Celera Motion team to learn more about our Applimotion range of direct drive brushless motors.

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